Indonesia`s Ministry of Environment and Forestry said that this year (until the end of September) forest fires have so far burned 857,756 hectares of peat and mineral soil an area almost 12 times larger than Singapore. This year is the worst for Indonesian wildfires and forest fires since the massive fires of 2015, which were the worst since 1997.  However, identifying those responsible for cremation was a critical challenge. Small-scale Indonesian farmers often use (and have been doing so for generations) the fire-removal technique to quickly evacuate land for cultivation. They can, by law, sink and burn up to two hectares of land for agricultural purposes, when this limit is often exceeded. As a result, following the 2019 crackdown, the Indonesian government has tightened its crackdown on these people and imposed the most severe form of punishment, including the confiscation of their country. Indonesia was the last ASEAN country to ratify the agreement in 2014, twelve years after it was first signed in 2002.  Concerns remain about the Indonesian government`s ability to monitor and change the problem. The contract did not prevent the annual return of low tide between 2004 and 2010 and once again in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Recently, Indonesia has become the world`s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, with 75% of its emissions due to deforestation.  The agreement will establish an ASEAN coordination centre for cross-border control of haze pollution to facilitate cooperation and coordination in managing the effects of forest fires and forest fires, in particular pollution from these fires. While awaiting the creation of the centre, the ASEAN secretariat and the ASEAN Meteorology Expert Centre (ASMC) have jointly assumed the interim functions of the Centre.
 Analyzed from the regional map of the duel 1 Sept 2019 – 1 Oct 2019 asmc.asean.org/home/, asmc.asean.org/haze-review-of-land-fires-and-smoke-haze-situation-for-first-fortnight-of-september-2019/, and asmc.asean.org/haze-review-of-land-fires-and-smoke-haze-situation-for-second-fortnight-of-september-2019/ In the case of duality, this means that Member States have difficulty asking for accountability on each other, and the entities concerned. Sovereignty issues, in particular, mean that it is not only difficult for Member States to take unilateral action against a foreign entity that engages in polluting activities on their territory; but it also complicates cooperation, as Member States retain the right to withhold the information necessary to prevent, monitor and mitigate the problem. In this sense, ASEAN`s guiding principles are, in many ways, at odds with an effective regional response to the cross-border tidal problem. Cross-border duality was identified by maps published by the ASEAN Specialised Meteorological Centre (ASMC).  Daily maps showing where and when cross-border tides occur have shown that cross-border waters could be grouped into two periods: during the 2019 fire season, researchers from Greenpeace Indonesia observed and analyzed fires and fires over the region, using the methodology outlined in Appendix III.